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Debates on racial slavery in the New World highlight the process of consolidation of a racialised, autonomous and rational modern subject. Slave Biographies: The Atlantic Database Network is an open access data repository of information on the identities of enslaved people in the. Inhuman Traffick: The International Struggle Against the Transatlantic Slave Trade, a Graphic. History. New York: Oxford University Press, The Making of New World Slavery argues that independent commerce, geared to burgeoning consumer markets, was the driving force behind the rise of plantation. New World slavery was a racialized institution in which slaves were black and slave owners were white. In contrast, owners and slaves in the Old. During the s, decades before Columbus's "discovery" of the New World, Europeans exploited African labor on slave plantations built on sugar producing. The slave trade provided political power, social standing and wealth for the church, European nation-states, New World colonies and individuals.

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The Slave Trade: From Europe to the Americas

In the year , in the region of present-day Senegal, a man named Ayuba Suleiman Diallo traveled down to an English port on the coast to purchase paper, likely manufactured in Europe, an important item for his Muslim cleric father. To purchase the paper, his father had given him a pair of slaves to trade, but on the way home, however, Ayuba encountered a roving band of Mandinka raiders who took him prisoner and sold him into slavery to an English captain in turn, making him one of the many millions who fell victim to the Atlantic Slave Trade. The memoir is useful nonetheless for its brief glimpse into how the slave trade actually operated on the African continent. Far from existing in isolation, the Atlantic Slave Trade was interwoven into a vast, intercontinental mercantile system commonly called the Triangular Trade. When Europeans began sailing further out onto the open ocean in the early-to-mid 15th century, they discovered that navigating the ocean required utilizing a series of perpetual wind cycles and ocean currents, such as the North Atlantic Gyre and the Gulf Stream. Portuguese navigators in particular established a kind of triangular route while exploring the western coast of Africa with the aid of the Northeast trade winds that dominate the tropics, returning to Europe not by reversing course, but sailing northwest to the Azores and catching the Southwest Westerlies home. Christopher Columbus himself became the first person to apply this principle to a transatlantic voyage, sailing north after making landfall in the Caribbean before returning to tell the world his discoveries. In the meantime, the process of triangular maritime routes became the standard practice of transatlantic navigation. As it happened, this process of navigation between Europe, Africa and the Americas fit in quite well with the prevailing economic theories on the purpose of colonies and international trade in the Early Modern Era. The overwhelming majority of colonies in the New World were not designed to exist as their own self-sustaining communities, but to act as production facilities for raw materials, particularly cash crops grown on massive plantations in hotter climates like cotton, sugarcane, chocolate, tobacco and coffee. Once harvested and processed, these crops were then sold and shipped to Europe where they were processed into finished goods.

Slavery Timeline A Chronology of Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation in the Fifteenth Century This page contains a detailed timeline of the main historical, literary, and cultural events connected with slavery, abolition, and emancipation in the British Isles between and Given Britain's limited role in this period, it mainly includes references to the most significant events taking place outside of the British zone of influence in the fifteenth century that was most of the world as well as some key events in the history of European exploration and colonisation. While there is plenty of detail in this timeline, it is of course impossible to record every event related to slavery in this period. The following selection is thus intended to provide an overview of the topic only. If there is something I have left out that you think should be included, please let me know. Click on a date in the list below, or scroll down the page, for information. Links are given to pages on this website only. For my sources and for further reading, look at the page Further Reading: Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation.

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Do Men Really Prefer Big Butts? Science Has the Answer

The debate continues over who coined the phrase "beauty is in the eye of the beholder," but the attraction to what feature are most beautiful are dependent on the observer. Some like full lips, others like long legs, and still others might prefer an ample and rounded butt. But men's obsession with shapely butts has remained strong ever since—and Kim Kardashian has the Instagram hits to prove it. In fact, you might say that rears have replaced breasts as our most scrutinized body parts. Research from the University of Texas at Austin found that what men are really drawn to isn't so much the size of the derriere, but the curve—or, more specifically, a spinal curvature that offers the illusion of a shapely butt. In the study, approximately men, between the ages of 17 to 34, were asked to rate the attractiveness of images of a woman's silhouette as she stood sideways. Each image had been altered so the lower spine curved out at different angles—causing the woman's butt to protrude in varying extremes. What researchers found: Overwhelmingly, men preferred the uber-bendy images that showed the lower spine curved at a degree angle, from back to buttocks. Pretty interesting, but do things change when butt size comes into play? To find out, the researchers asked men to look at images of women with different butt sizes and spinal curves. Turns out, the men were turned on by women whose spinal curvature was closest to 45 degrees, regardless of the size of their rear. But before those of you with pancake-flat cabooses get all cocky or, shall we say, cheeky? Since pregnancy pitches the center of gravity forward, explains lead author David Lewis, "this spinal structure would have enabled pregnant women to balance their weight over the hips.

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Arsenal have been top of Premier League table seven times since Invincibles: What happened next?

For the latest news on Arsenal FC, including scores, fixtures, team news, results, form guide & league position, visit the official website of the Premier. Arsenal Football Club Official Website: get the latest club news, highlights, fixtures and results. Premier League. Premier League. Arsenal crest. Premier League. Arsenal crest. Arsenal v. Manchester United crest. Manchester United · Ticket Info. Sun Jan 15 - Premier League. Arsenal plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club has won 13 league titles (including one unbeaten title), a record 14 FA. Arsenal Football Club, commonly referred to as Arsenal, is a professional football club based in Islington, London, England. Arsenal plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football.

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